Site Anchors


Site anchors, also known as anchor links, are a way to "deep link" your site with consistently navigable content. Such an approach often makes use of the ability for a browser to load/jump/scroll-to a named element (such as a heading or div) by its id attribute. In fact, since this is normal browser behavior, if you were to use your browser's dev tools to find an id of a given div or other tag, you could pass along a link to another person, highlighting the section of interest. This is something I tend to do a surprising amount of time, especially as I tend to send links to co-workers, in an effort to highlight specific sections of content; big surprise there.


As you can probably guess, the usefulness of such a link requires that the element with the id will be (consistently) available. If your pages are generated with dynamically constructed ids, you may have no way to consistently provide such a thing. This brings me to the next aspect of what makes site anchors a good idea and useful.


In order for people, specifically non-developers and developers that aren't so lazy as to avoid inspecting an element's id to build out a site anchor manually, to actually use such a feature, we need to present it in a non-obstrusive fashion and consistently. What seems to be the best approach is to present an icon, adjacent to the named element, which the user can click on (or right-click, as is more likely) to copy the fully-formed linked address. Maybe its from over-exposure to GitHub's implementation, but I do prefer for these site anchor link indicators to be hidden until I hover over the named element; something about it is much "cleaner" and for the casual reader, it's not obstrusive. The fact that a simple hide/show can be achieved on :hover of an element via CSS means that, as an effect, it's both easily achievable and not "costly" in terms of performance.

My Trials and Tribulations

I had previously implemented the AnchorJS script into my blog, which was both easy to implement and looked and worked great... on my local preview. In fact, my biggest issue with it was that, no matter what I tried, I couldn't get it to perform correctly on the live version of my blog. At first, I thought this was due to my use of CloudFlare's minification of my JS and/or its implementation of the "rail gun" feature (which concatenates and uglifies detected static assets); as it turns out, this is not the case, as I went so far as to disable the features, purge the cache, wait a while, and found that it was still broken.

Side Note

If CloudFlare's features sound pretty awesome, they should. In fact, by merely passing through the DNS handling for a domain, they can add a great amount of the features I presented about in my 2015 session at MWLUG, on Speeding Up Your Apps, With Nginx and PageSpeed. The fact that I use a free account with the vast majority of these features enabled is pretty amazing and useful; here's a link to their plan comparison page.

My Blog's (New) Implementation

AnchorJS has a number of good features and is easily implemented, but I had to abandon it in favor of something else. I went for something simpler, which is modeled after the header anchor links, described in a post, making use of jQuery and Font Awesome for a Jekyll site (all of which I have, though the use of Jekyll is immaterial here, aside from the fact that my markdown posts automatically have ids created for my header elements).


If you would prefer to skip ahead, just view my blog's pertaining diff. You will notice I had even gone so far as to inline the uglified version of the script to try and force it to load immediately prior to the invocation.

The Concept

  • create hyperlinks
  • for the header elements
  • with some "link" indication
  • show on hover

The Implementation

I've always found that the simpler an implementation is, the better it holds up. I've included some inline comments to describe the function of each component.

* Applies the styles only to elements of .header-link inside of the .post-body, meaning that the rest of my blog's elements will be unaffected.
.post-body .header-link {
left: -3rem; /* moves the anchor link to the left of the actual header */
opacity: 0; /* sets default state to not be shown */
transition: opacity 0.2s ease-in-out 0.1s; /* fancy fading in effect */
-webkit-transition: opacity 0.2s ease-in-out 0.1s; /* some vendor-specific implementations of the transition property */
-moz-transition: opacity 0.2s ease-in-out 0.1s;
-ms-transition: opacity 0.2s ease-in-out 0.1s;
* Defining the showing of the anchor/header links on hover of the h* elements, that are within the .post-body div.
.post-body h1:hover .header-link,
.post-body h2:hover .header-link,
.post-body h3:hover .header-link,
.post-body h4:hover .header-link,
.post-body h5:hover .header-link,
.post-body h6:hover .header-link {
opacity: 1; /* show the site anchor */
view raw anchors.css hosted with ❤ by GitHub
* The corresponding JavaScript component, which only creates the link element in the DOM,
* with the correct reference to the Font Awesome icon and CSS style class.
$(document).ready(function() {
return $("h2, h3, h4, h5, h6").each(function(i, el) { /* find the h* elements */
var $el, icon, id;
$el = $(el); /* get a handle on the current element */
id = $el.attr('id'); /* grab its id attribute */
icon = '<i class="fa fa-link"></i>'; /* define the icon w/ Font Awesome to be added */
if (id) {
return $el.prepend($("<a />").addClass("header-link").attr("href", "#" + id).html(icon)); /* create the link by prepending it to the h* tag */
view raw anchors.js hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Recommendations for Web Applications

As mentioned before, if there are consistently availabe ids, they can be passed between users pretty successfully. If those id attributes are computed dynamically as with XPages controls and elements, this is problematic (but expected, as you could potentially implement a Custom Control multiple times in an XPage, so unique namespaces are required).

What to Avoid

Repeating an id attribute is pretty terrible practice, so below when I describe passing through an id, please keep this in mind: repeating an id on a page will only work for the first element with that id.

This embedded example has multiple sets of five h3 tags, each with corresponding a (anchor) tags pointing at their id via the hash (href="#<id>") method. If you scroll down to the second or third block and click a link, you'll note that the window (in the iframe) takes you to the first element with that id.

If you anticipate certain known points, you can do a couple of things, most of which amounts to either:

  • passing through an HTML tag to define its id in a static fashion
  • controlling the computation of the id, say via xp:attr

Chris Toohey did a great job recently of covering the options for this, and his blog post on the subject goes into pretty good detail on doing just this with XPages.


All in all, I had something neat, it didn't work "in production", and instead of fiddling to far with it, I remembered that I'm a developer and this is easy stuff. It's also a pretty useful feature I use pretty regularly, so I'm just looking to share the lesson learned. Until next time, 🍻!